Alfred Bernhard Nobel Biography - Inventor Dynamite And Founder Nobel

Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833 from the couple Immanuel Nobel and Andriette Ahlsell. The father is an engineer and a businessman in the construction field who also likes to experiment, especially in terms of the destruction of buildings and the stone that is highly associated with the profession. Later, the business line pushes Alfred Nobel invented dynamite as an explosive.

When Alfred was born, Immanuel business through adversity. This prompted him to move to another country, namely Finland and Russia. His family was left in Stockholm. Despite coming from a wealthy family, Andriette has tenacity and ability to work hard are awesome. In order to connect his family, he opened a grocery store in Stockholm and reap no small treasure.

In 1842 Immanuel Nobel family reunited in Russia. Immanuel's new business, the field of machinery on the rise and success because of the contract with the Russian military as a provider of equipment used in the Crimean War against England. The company also makes landmines and sea needed for the Russian government.

Nobel family settled in Saint Petersburg and the simple life although actually be dabbling in luxury. Immanuel wealth invested in their children's education. Alfred and all his brothers did not undergo formal education in schools. They were educated privately at home under the instruction of teachers who are competent in their respective fields.

The results of such education is very visible within Alfred. Under the guidance of a Swedish teacher, Lars Santesson, he finally has a deep interest in literature and philosophy. Ivan Peterov Immanuel teach children math, physics, and chemistry. All children Immanuel fluent in Swedish, Russian, Russia, France, Britain, and Germany. Alfred himself to master the language at the age of 17.

Although the base received the same education, Alfred chose a different path with his brothers. Ludvig and Robert dabbling in the field of engineering, while Alfred chose to explore the science of chemistry. Professor Nikolai N. Zinin, the chemistry teacher, was the one who introduced Alfred and Immanuel will nitroglycerin at a later date.

Study chemical engineering

Alfred Nobel was very interested in youth literature, physics, and chemistry. He also classified as personal melancholy love writing poetry. After his death, he recorded a personal library consisting of 1,500 books ranging from science, philosophy, to theology and history. The works of Lord Byron, poet from England, he is love.

Philosophy helped fill his youth. Just because you want to test the language skills (and of course the intellectual as well), Alfred Nobel translation of Voltaire from French to Swedish and re-writing it in French. Locke, Alexander von Humboldt, and Benedict Spinoza was dilahapnya easily.

Apparently, Immanuel disagree with Alfred craze. He hoped that Alfred joined the family firm, especially as an engineer. Immanuel effort to divert attention from the literary world realized Alfred by Alfred sending abroad. Immanuel wanted his son was a quiet and introverted little that explore the science of chemical engineering and open minded.

Alfred began crossed the globe since 1850 until 1852. The first country he visited the United States. There he studied the latest technology. His education was continued in Paris, France. Professor T.J. Pelouze accept to work in his private laboratory on the recommendations given by Professor Zinin, a former chemistry teacher.

Zinin himself was a pupil of Pelouze. Pelouze is a professor at the Collge de France and also a close friend of Berzelius, Swedish chemist.

What happened in Paris was long tails on the business of Alfred Nobel later. The town also makes a chemist Alfred acquainted with young students who come from Italy Pelouze, Ascanio Sobrero. Sobrero three years earlier, in 1847, discovered a liquid chemical called with pyroglicerine (now called the nitroglycerin). He explains to Alfred, this material has a high explosive power, but he does not know how to control the resulting explosion.

Nitroglycerin produced from mixing glycerin with nitric and sulfuric acid or glycerol nitration process. This material is dangerous because it is explosive. Despite the damage, and it has exceeded gunpowder (Gunpowder), but these can easily explode if subjected to pressure and temperature increase. Alfred Nobel was interested to find out more about nitroglycerin and wants to involve its use in the construction business.


In 1852 Immanuel Nobel business progressed very rapidly along with the increasing severity of the Crimean War. Orders Russian Government will increase armaments. Immanuel also sent Alfred to return to Russia to help the family business.

Based on the knowledge gained during in Paris, Alfred and his father conducted a series of experiments to produce large quantities of nitroglycerin, and can be used in commercial purposes.

The idea would be research on nitroglycerin also came from Professor Zinin who held a demonstration for the use of nitroglycerin for military purposes. In the demonstration, Zinin pour a few drops of nitroglycerin explosion then hit hard. Even so, it is a liquid that reacts in contact with the pressure, the rest remains.

Immanuel also tried to involve him in the Crimean War, but all failed and does not work. According to Alfred at a later date, his experiments were done by mixing nitroglycerin with gunpowder only done on a small scale.

Crimean War was finally over after the signing of the Treaty of Paris on March 30, 1856. These events resulted in a second bankruptcy for Immanuel and forced him to leave Russia and return to Sweden. Robert and Ludvig settled in Russia and develop a business machine that would later establish the Russian oil company called Brothers Nobel or Branobel.


Approximately in 1860, Alfred held a series of personal experiments. Eventually he began successfully producing nitroglycerine without any significant problems. Its success is its first advantage over Sobrero.

Alfred then mixing nitroglycerin with gunpowder and burning with the help of axes. The father who performed a similar experiment is quite grim. He considered, it was her idea. Alfred also explained what he was doing, so that Immanuel anger subsided. The work of Alfred Nobel will be called by blasting liquid oil is also contained in the patent in October 1863, at the age of 30.
After that, the shadows of success Alferd Nobel began to appear gradually. In the spring and the following summer, she returned the research and finally find out the mechanism of nitroglycerin production simpler and introduce the use of detonators in blasting. Both of these patented inventions eventually anyway.

Although classified as melancholic, Alfred Nobel was not a slow recovery from grief. In September 1864, Alfred plant in Stockholm exploded and claimed his brother, Emil Nobel. One month later, he included the company in the stock market.

Great success was achieved. Plant became more scattered throughout the world. He bought a plot of land in Hamburg, Germany, and established a factory there. Plant in the United States was built in 1866 after a fight bureaucratic barriers and business practices are similar.

The success did not deter the attention of Alfred the field very digemarinya, which is researching. He finally learned, nitroglycerin can be absorbed by a porous material that has a shape that are portable, can be carried anywhere, and safe.

When living in Germany, he finally found the material. This material is known as Kieselguhr, which is made from silica sand pengabsorb derived from the shells of algae diatomae. Kieselguhr make nitroglycerin has the form, being able mengabsorb liquid chemicals. Thus, the mixture can be easily put on and taken to blasting targets anywhere without fear of explosion.

This is where the dynamite came from. Dynamite is derived from the Greek word dynamis, meaning power or energy. In 1867, also a time of prosperity for Alfred Nobel patents dynamite for approval in various countries such as Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Dynamite himself discovered during pneumatic jackhammers and diamonds are used for the same purposes. It is not surprising that the involvement of dynamite greatly reduces the time, effort, and costs in construction projects.

Alfred Nobel in 1868 and awarded him Letterstedt Prize of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The award is given to anyone who produces a valuable discovery for mankind. The idea also comes from the Nobel award received by Alfred Nobel in Sweden.

Tough business and he frequently traveled abroad, leaving only a little time for his personal life. At the age of 43 he was feeling lonely. This led him to make friends at home and also private secretary by advertising in newspapers. Applicants came. But the choice finally fell on the Countess Bertha Kinsky, an Austrian noblewoman.

His introduction to the Countess did not last long because the Countess Bertha Kinsky should marry Count Arthur von Suttner. Nevertheless, they keep in touch through letters. Bertha von Suttner was not a vain woman. He was quite a thinker and world peace activist who later produced a book titled "Lay Down Your Arms". Many people who do not doubt the influence of Bertha von Suttner in shaping the idea of ​​Alfred Nobel to give their wealth in the form of prizes to those who strongly support world peace. Bertha von Suttner himself received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905.

Excess Alfred Nobel who really stood out was his ability to combine style ala deep thinking philosopher and scientist with a far-sighted vision and a dynamic that often owned by an industrialist. He is also interested in social issues and was often cast thoughts belonging to radical for its time. Literature and poetry writing as well they do.

Riches and the absence of offspring make him confused about to be given to whom the property has. On 27 November 1895 he wrote his will in the presence of the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris. In 1891 in moved from Paris to San Remo, Italy where he died of a cerebral hemorrhage on December 10, 1896. He produced 355 patents during his lifetime. ***

Farid Solana,

Students of the Department of Chemical Engineering FTI ITB

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