Pramoedya Ananta Toer was born in Blora, Central Java on February 6, 1925. He is the eldest child in her family. His father was a teacher, while his mother cooked rice trade. The original name was Pramoedya Ananta Pramoedya Mastoer, as it is written in a collection of semi-autobiographical short stories entitled Stories From Blora. Because Mastoer surname (father's name) were deemed too aristocratic, he removes Java prefix "Mas" from the name and use the "Tur" as a surname. As the eldest son Boedi Oetomo Institute figures, small Pram actually does so brilliantly in lessons at school. Three times not a grade in elementary school, making him think of himself as a child stupid. Consequently, after graduating from elementary school who lived under harsh teaching his own father, his father, Mr. Mastoer, refused to register it to MULO (junior level).
He then continued his education in the schools telegraph (Radio Vakschool) Surabaya her expense. Costs for a mediocre school in Surabaya also nearly made Pram failed in practice exams. At that time, without having the equipment, he still follows the test, but in a way only pretend to be busy at the brightest side. However, in general the values Pram pretty good and he even graduated from school because of the outbreak of World War II in Asia, diplomas were sent from London he had never received. then worked as a typist for the Japanese newspaper in Jakarta during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. During Indonesia's independence, he joined the military in Java and Jakarta often placed at the end of the war of independence. He wrote short stories and books throughout his military career and while imprisoned Dutch in Jakarta in 1948 and 1949. In the 1950s, he lived in the Netherlands as part of a cultural exchange program, and when he returned to Indonesia he became a member of Lekra, one left-wing organizations in Indonesia. Writing style changed over time, as demonstrated in his corruption, fiction critic of the civil service that fall on the trap of corruption. This creates friction between him and the government of Sukarno.
During that time, he began to study the abuse of Indonesian Chinese, and at the same time, he began to relate closely with writers in China. In particular, he published a series of letters to the Chinese writers who discuss the history of the Chinese in Indonesia, titled Hoakiau in Indonesia. He is a critic of the government ignoring the Java-centric needs and desires of the rest of Indonesia, and is famous for proposing that the government should be moved to the outside of Java. In the 1960s he was arrested because of the Soeharto government pro-Communist views Tiongkoknya. His book is banned from circulation, and he was detained without trial at Nusakambangan off the coast of Java, and finally on Buru island in eastern Indonesia.
He was forbidden to write during his incarceration on the island of Buru, but still manage to write his famous series titled Earth of Mankind, 4 serial semi-fiction novel chronicles the history of Indonesia. The protagonist Minke, small aristocratic Javanese, reflected on the experience of RM Tirto Adisuryo a prominent movement in colonial times who founded the organization and is recognized by SI Priyayi Pramoedya as the first national organization. Volume first presented orally at the sepenjaranya friend, and the rest was smuggled out of the country for Australian authors collected and later published in English and Indonesian. Pramoedya was released from custody on December 21, 1979 and get a letter of release is legally not guilty and not involved G30S/PKI, but it's still under house arrest in Jakarta until 1992, and the city and state prison inmates to 1999, and was also required to report once a week to East Jakarta Military for about 2 years.
During that time he wrote a beach girl, semi-fictional novel based on her grandmother's own experience. He also wrote A Singing Silent Mute (1995), an autobiography by writing that he wrote for his daughter but was not allowed to be posted, and Reverse Flow (1995). A complete edition of Sing Silent Mute translated into English by Willem Samuels, published by Hasta Mitra in Indonesia in cooperation with Lontar Foundation in 1999 as The Mute's soliloquy: A Memoir
When Pramoedya get the Ramon Magsaysay Award, 1995, reported as many as 26 Indonesian literary figures wrote 'protest' to Ramon Magsaysay Foundation. They do not agree, Pramoedya the accused as "spokesman Lekra most fierce executioner once, hit, tackle, slaughter and devour" during guided democracy, inappropriate given gifts and demanded revocation of the award bestowed upon Pramoedya. But a few days later, Taufik Ismail as an initiator, rectify news. He said, instead demanding 'retraction', but warned 'who Pramoedya it'. He said, many people do not know the 'dark reputation' Pram first. And Magsaysay award regarded as a faux pas. But on the other hand, Mochtar Lubis threatens restore the Magsaysay prize awarded to him in 1958, when Pram still be awarded the same prize.
Lubis said, HB Jassin will return Magsaysay prize ever received. However, it turns out in the next news, HB Jassin even say anything else at all from Mochtar Lubis statement. In a variety of his opinions in the media, the 26 signatories was felt as a victim of the pre-1965 state. And they require at Pram, to acknowledge and apologize would any role 'dishonorable' in 'darkest period of creativity' in the days of Guided Democracy. Pram, says Mochtar Lubis, a fellow artist who led the suppression of a disagreement with him.
While Pramoedya to judge all the writings and speeches in the pre-1965 was not more than a 'class ordinary polemic' which may be followed by anyone. He denied engaging in various acts of 'too far'. He also feels vilified, when charged with burning all books. He even suggested that his case was brought to court only if it is material enough. If not enough, take it to an open forum, he said, but with the stipulation I may answer and defend himself, he added. Since the New Order, Pramoedya never got the freedom to voice his own voice, and several times he was attacked and beaten publicly in the newspaper. But the painter exposure yell Joko, who had also been a prisoner on the island of Buru, he called Pramoedya as 'clerk'. Clerk job in question by Joko scream is Pramoedya gets 'job' of workers as carpenters ketiknya Buru them.
Even according to Joko yell, Pramoedya fate better than the inmates generally. His status as a hero by the media artist distributed internationally, making him a decent living facilities - especially when there are guests from the 'outside' who came Pramoedya certainly would be a 'star'. Pramoedya has written many columns and short articles criticizing the current Indonesian government. He wrote a book in the Virgin Teens Hold Military, documentation written in the style of Javanese women miserable being forced to be comfort women during the Japanese occupation. Everything was brought to the island of Buru where they suffered sexual violence, ended up staying there rather than return to Java. Pramoedya make his acquaintance when he was a political prisoner on the island of Buru during the 1970s. Many of his writings touching the theme of interaction between cultures, between the Dutch, Javanese kingdoms, the Javanese in general, and Chinese. Many of his writings are also semi-autobiographical, in which he drew on his own experiences. He continued to be active as a writer and columnist. He obtained a Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature and Creative Communication Arts in 1995. He has also been considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature. He also won the Fukuoka Asian Culture Gifts XI 2000 and in 2004 the Norwegian Authors' Union Award for his contributions to the literary world. He completed his trip to North America in 1999 and received an award from the University of Michigan.
Pram romance is also not free from the influence of the reality of poverty are even still plural attacked the writers and artists of today. His first marriage ended in divorce and expulsion Pram of the law because of the results he obtained from an uncertain writing could not support the family. While he was alive erratic, one day, despite not having any money, he visited an exhibition of the first book in Indonesia and saw one woman guard booth that caught his attention. He was desperate come and get acquainted with a woman who was named Maemunah it. Every day he lingered accompany Maemunah sitting in the booth like a guard. Even as late as the President also visited and saw the girl, he jokingly described the scene as "crocodile alligator preliminaries." Firmness and any approach brings results, proven Maemunah wife is with him always remained faithful in all their ups and downs until now.
Active until the end of his life he wrote, although his health declined due to his age and his favorite smoking. On 12 January 2006, it was rumored to have two weeks lying ill at his home in Bojong Gede, Bogor, and hospitalizations. According to reports, Pramoedya suffer from diabetes, breathing difficulties and heart anymore. On February 6, 2006 at the Small Theatre Taman Ismail Marzuki, held special exhibition of book covers from Pramoedya work. The exhibition thus anniversary gift for Pramoedya 81. An exhibition titled Pram, Book and Host Young presents the covers of books ever published in mancanegara. There are about 200 books been translated into various languages of the world.
On 27 April 2006, Pram was not self-conscious. The family finally decided to take him to the hospital Sint Carolus day. Pram was diagnosed with pneumonia, a disease that has never been menjangkitinya, plus renal complications, heart disease, and diabetes. Pram only survive three days in the hospital. Once aware, he again asked to go home. Although the request was not approved doctors, Pram insisted on going home. Saturday, April 29, at around 19:00, when he got home, his condition is much better. Although still critical, Pram was able to tilt his body and moving his hands. His condition had worsened again at 20:00. Pram can still smile and clenched his fists when writers Eka Budianta see him. Pram also laughed when prompted fans to see him that Soeharto was still alive. Pram conditions it had improved, and more critical. Pram then the IV was removed and stated that he was cured. He then asks fed oatmeal and asked for cigarettes. But, of course, the request was failed families. They just put a cigarette in his mouth without lighting it Pram. These conditions lasted until 22.00.
After that, a few times he came back having a critical mass. The family decided to hold tahlilan to pray Pram. Pram tidal condition persists until at 02.00. At that time, he declared that God would pick him up immediately. "I push it," he said. However, friends and relatives who are not tired of Pram keep giving spirit alive. Pram a beautiful house is not only filled with children, grandchildren, and great-grandson. But, my friends to join fans waiting Pram. The news had spread from death Pram 03.00. Neighbors have received the sad news. However, at 05.00, they again heard the Pram still alive. Finally, when his death, Pram was moaning, "End just me. Bakar me now," he said.
On 30 April 2006 at 08:55 Pramoedya died at the age of 81 years. Hundreds of mourners filled the house and the yard looks Pram in Multikarya II Road No 26, Utan Kayu, East Jakarta. Mourners attended, among others Sitor Situmorang, Erry Riyana Hardjapamekas, Nurul Arifin and husband, Usman Hamid, Putu Wijaya, Goenawan, Gus Solah, Ratna Sarumpaet, Budiman Sujatmiko, as well as dozens of activists, writers, and intellectuals. Also present Minister of Culture and Tourism Jero Wacik. Seen a sign of mourning wreaths, among others KontraS, Vice President Jusuf Kalla, artist Happy Salma, DPD officials PDI Jakarta Arts Council, and others. Pram friends who had been detained on the island of Buru also attended the funeral. Including the young fans of the Pram. 12:30 pm The body is bathed and disalatkan. After that, taken out of the house to put into the ambulance that brought Pram TPU Rubber bivouac. Sound track and Blood Juang Internationale sung among the mourners.
- Freedom to Write Award From PEN American Center, AS, 1988
- The Fund for Free Expression, New York, AS, 1989
- Wertheim Award, "for his meritorious services to the struggle for emancipation of Indonesian people", dari The Wertheim Fondation, Leiden, London, 1995
- Ramon Magsaysay Award, "for Journalism, Literature, and Creative Arts, in recognation of his illuminating with briliant stories the historical awakening, and modern experience of Indonesian people", dari Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation, Manila, Filipina, 1995
- UNESCO Madanjeet Singh Prize, "in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the promotion of tolerance and non-violence" dari UNESCO, Perancis, 1996
- Doctor of Humane Letters, "in recognition of his remarkable imagination and distinguished literary contributions, his example to all who oppose tyranny, and his highly principled struggle for intellectual freedom" dari Universitas Michigan, Madison, AS, 1999
- Chancellor's distinguished Honor Award, "for his outstanding literary archievements and for his contributions to ethnic tolerance and global understanding", dari Universitas California, Berkeley, AS, 1999
- Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Letters, dari Le Ministre de la Culture et de la Communication Republique, Paris, Perancis, 1999
- New York Foundation for the Arts Award, New York, AS, 2000
- Fukuoka Cultural Grand Prize (Hadiah Budaya Asia Fukuoka), Jepang, 2000
- The Norwegian Authors Union, 2004
- Centenario Pablo Neruda, Chili, 2004
- Member Nederland Center, When he was on the island of Buru, 1978
- Lifetime honorary member of the International PEN Australia Center, 1982
- Honorary Members PEN Center, Swedia, 1982
- Honorary Members PEN American Center, AS, 1987
- Deutschsweizeriches PEN member, Zentrum, Swiss, 1988
- International PEN English Center Award, Inggris, 1992
- International PEN Award Association of Writers Zentrum Deutschland, Jerman, 1999